Symposia SCHCF + ALACF 2020

S1 – New advances in cardiorespiratory neural control

Coordinator: Rodrigo Iturriaga (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile)

The symposium will discuss recent advances on molecular and cellular physiological mechanisms by which the carotid body chemoreceptors and brainstem nuclei (NTS, RVLM and RTN) play a key role in controlling breathing and cardiovascular function. In the last years, substantial advances in the compression of this process have been obtained using state of the art techniques, including optogenic stimulation, designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD)-based chemogenomic, and simultaneous recordings of ventilation and blood pressure in free-moving animals. The speakers will discuss a range of topics including the role played by neurons and glial cells in the neural control of cardiorespiratory function in health and disease.

Speakers

Thiago Moreira (University of São Paulo, Brazil)Adrenergic C1 neurons and the control of cardiorespiratory integration during hypoxia

Esteban Moya (University of California San Diego, USA)Microglia activation in the nucleus tractus solitarius with carotid body denervation during hypoxia

Rodrigo del Río (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile)Astrocytes from the retrotrapezoid nucleus governs breathing rhythm regulation: implications for disordered breathing in heart failure

S2 – Muscle as endocrine and paracrine organs

Coordinators: Manuel Estrada (Universidad de Chile, Chile), Gerardo García-Rivas (Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico)

Muscle plasticity in response to normal functions and pathological conditions involves circulating hormones and the production and secretions of active factors into muscle cells collectively called myokines and muscle-related hormones. A coordinated link between activation of tissue and several organs are involved excitation-contraction coupling, metabolism, and muscle repair to specific up-to-date endocrine and paracrine muscle actions. Currently, it is known that skeletal myofibers, smooth and cardiac cells produce and release cytokines, myokines, and other active peptides. These molecules play crucial roles in the crosstalk of skeletal and cardiac muscle with other tissues. Together with the synthesis and degradation controlled by muscle metabolites, they represent an essential mechanism to regulate local and whole-body homeostasis. A coordinated link for muscle-related hormone production, secretion action mechanisms, and local and systemic functions has made a current study of endocrine and paracrine muscle actions to be considered a frontier of scientific knowledge and research worldwide. This symposium aims to stimulate the impact of endocrine and paracrine muscle functions. 

Speakers

Paola Llanos (Universidad de Chile, Chile)NLRP3 inflammasome participation in the development of low-grade inflammation during insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

Noemí García (Tecnológico de Monterrey, México)Physical activity restores the mitochondria organization and function disrupted by obesity in skeletal muscle

Luciana V. Rossoni (Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil)The role of perivascular adipose tissue in the control of vascular tonus

S3 – The exposome and metabolic diseases

Coordinator: Luis Sobrevia (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile)

Exposome refers to environmental contaminants that exert a deleterious effect altering the human health status. The exposome can be external, including air pollution, chemicals in food and water, and diet, and the internal exposome, including age, genetic and metabolic profile. Connections between the function of different organs and the regulation of the functioning of remote organs depend on the type or quality of signalling. Thus, an appropriate immediate microenvironment is required for cell survival, securing a healthy individual. This phenomenon includes the exposome not only from the external environment but of the immediate nearby extracellular environment. Prof David Hill with cover the development and plasticity of the endocrine pancreas responds to both the intrauterine and postnatal exposome in best efforts to predict and respond to alterations in nutritional availability and metabolic requirements. The plastic potential of pancreatic beta-cells appears to be set early in life in response to the exposome but critical windows may exist during the lifespan where the risk of adult metabolic diseases might be reduced through therapeutic interventions. Dr Meri De Angelis and Prof Karl-Werner Schramm will discuss the increasing evidence on how persistent organic pollutants (POP) can interfere with the endocrine system. These POPs referred to as “endocrine disrupting chemicals” are widely present in the environment and populations are exposed globally. Perinatal exposure to such chemicals could lead to the onset of diseases in later life. It is known, that, maternal thyroid hormones are transported into fetal tissues from 6 weeks of gestation and it seems that during the first trimester, and part of the second, the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal THs supply for its development. The most recent and important clinical studies concerning analytical perspectives, the association and tentative molecular background between the level of thyroid hormones and the exposure to POPs during the perinatal period will be discussed. Prof Heqing Shen will cover the metabolomics for small exogenous and endogenous molecular biomarkers of exposures and their effects (xenobiotics from pollutants and microbes, metabolic adducts and others), adductomics for the measurement of DNA and protein adducts of exposures and effect, computational aided exposure identification to molecule annotation and non-targeting strategies, and biomarker characterization with large-scale data mining and statistical associations among exposures and effects.

Speakers

David Hill (Lawson Research Institute, Canada) The exposome and pancreatic development and function

Meri De Angelis (Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Molecular EXposomics, and Technical University of Munich, Germany) Perinatal effects of persistent organic pollutants (POP) on thyroid hormone network

Heqing Shen (Xiamen University, China) Molecular analytical aspects of exposomics

S4 – Preeclampsia more than hypertension in pregnancy

Coordinators: Carlos Escudero (Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chile), Pablo Torres-Vergara (Universidad de Concepción, Chile)

Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with multisystemic involvement and multifactorial origin that affects between 5-7% of pregnancies in the world and manifests after 20 weeks of gestation. However, alterations associated with this disease are extended until adulthood in both mother and offspring. Therefore, this disease constitutes a syndrome involving several organs and systems. In this symposium, we joint Latin American speakers belong Chilean (www.grivashealth.cl) and Iberoamerican collaborative networks (www.rivatrem.org) who will present evidence from their laboratories. Topics will include failure in the processes of detoxification; alteration in the coagulation; and placental mitochondrial dysfunction that we hope generates an active interaction with the audience.

Speakers

Carlos Galaviz-Hernández (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Durango, Mexico)Association of genetic variants in maternal biotransformation enzymes with preeclampsia

Paola Ayala (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia)Role of thrombomodulin and tissue factor in preeclampsia

Enrique Terán (Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador)Mitochondrial activity, ROS and preeclampsia

S5 – Physiology of renal disease

Coordinator: Carlos E Irarrázabal (Universidad de Los Andes, Chile)

In the last two centuries, very important research has been done to understand how the kidneys work and how to treat problems related to their function. All of this research has enabled growth and innovation in kidney care. However, medical evolution has not undergone the advances necessary to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with kidney disease. In the last two decades. Globally 1.7 million people die from acute kidney disease each year. The global mortality rate from Chronic kidney disease at all ages has increased by 41.5% between 1990 and 2017. This situation establishes the need to continue generating knowledge to prevent and treat these diseases. This symposium will present some of the new advances in Latin American research in this regard.

Speakers

Cristián Amadro (Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile). Effect of NGAL on the inflammation produced by unilateral ureteral obstruction

Carlos E Irarrázabal (Universidad de Los Andes, Chile)Renal ischemia and reperfusion induce the expression of endothelial-to-mesenchymal markers in a murine model

Alexis González (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile)Prorenin receptor as an inducer of profibrotic signals in renal collecting tubule cells

S6 – New approaches to identify oncogenic transformation across cancer progression – focus on extracellular vesicles

Coordinator: Carlos Salomón (Universidad de Concepción, Chile & University of Queensland, Australia)

Cancer is defined as abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth and division and is the second leading cause of death globally. Major contributors to cancer-related deaths include a lack of accessibility to treatments, delayed diagnosis, and late-stage presentation. Furthermore, metastasis, which is the spread of disease away from the primary site, also contributes to fatalities. Although exact causes underlying the oncogenic transformation of normal cells are unknown, it is understood that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to it. Therefore, there is a growing field of research focusing on cancer development, identifying biomarkers, monitoring disease progression, and therapeutic development. The past decade has observed an extraordinary explosion of research in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs), especially in a specific type of EVs originating from endosomal compartments, called exosomes. In this symposium, we will discuss the potential role of EVs in cancer progression and the ability of EVs for biomarkers and therapeutics.

Speakers

Andreas Moller (QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia)Communication between cancer cells and their environment via exosomes

Andy Tao (Purdue University, USA) Phosphoproteins in EVs and cancer progression

Shayna Sharma (Early career researcher, University of Queensland, Australia) Role of exosomes in ovarian cancer

S7 – Molecular and cellular mechanisms in cardiac diseases

Coordinators: Alicia Mattiazzi (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina), Paulina Donoso (Universidad de Chile, Chile)

The objective of the symposium is to cover an important area of Cardiovascular Physiology, namely intracellular signals involved in cardiac function and dysfunction. We selected three novel and critical cardiac signalling pathways. One is triggered by Polycystin -1, a mechanosensor that regulates heart contractility and is involved in mechanical stretch-induced cardiac hypertrophy. A second one is triggered by alterations in endoplasmic reticulum function with the consequent activation of several transduction pathways of calcium regulation and dysregulation. Finally, the third one will focus on the link between the immune system and different homeostatic and perturbed conditions in the heart.

Speakers

Zully Pedrozo (Universidad de Chile, Chile). Regulation of cardiac BIN1 expression through polycystin-1

Cecilia Mundiña-Weilenmann (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina)Endoplasmic reticulum stress: a new player in the pathogenesis of stunned myocardium

Emiliano Medei (Universidad Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil)Cardioimmunology

S8 – Endothelial function, metabolism, and signalling

Coordinators: Carlos Escudero (Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chile), Marcelo González (Universidad de Concepción, Chile)

The endothelium forms the inner cellular lining of blood vessels. It is now well established that endothelial cells are highly metabolically active, highly tissue differentiated and play a critical role in many physiological processes, including the control of vasomotor tone, the trafficking of blood cells between blood and underlying tissue, the maintenance of blood fluidity, permeability, angiogenesis, and both innate and adaptive immunity. It is also recognized that the endothelium is involved in most if not all disease states, either as a primary determinant of pathophysiology or as a victim of collateral damage. However, there exists a wide bench-to-bedside gap in endothelial biomedicine. In this symposium, we joint Latin American speakers belong Chilean(www.grivashealth.cl) and Iberoamerican collaborative networks (www.rivatrem.org) to discuss endothelial function, metabolism and signalling. Topics will include O-GlcNacylation, autocrine role in cancer.

Speakers

Fernanda Giachini (Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil) O-GlcNAc impairs endothelial function in uterine arteries from virgin but not pregnant rats: The role of GSK3β

Alejandro S Godoy (Universidad San Sebastián, Chile & Roswell Park Comprehensive CancerCenter, USA) Angiocrine role of the endothelium in prostate cancer cells

Martha Sosa-Macías (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico) Levetiracetam effect on placental carriers in a murine model

S9 – TRP channels: health and disease

Coordinators: Enoch Luis Baltazar (Cátedras CONACYT – Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México), Carlos Fernández-Peña Acuña (St. Jude Children´s Research Hospital, USA)

The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a family of ion channels expressed in different tissues of the human body. In mammals, it has been described 28 TRP channels that are diverse in structure, mechanisms of activation and modulation, and function. The main objective of this symposium is that young/postdoctoral researchers and a Ph. student show their main results in the TRP channels field. The talks will cover aspects of TRP channels in neuroscience, including their physiology and pharmacology, and their roles in different processes, like nociception and vascular diseases.

Sara Luz Morales Lázaro (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico) Molecular relationship between TRPV1 channel, the Sigma-1 receptor and progesterone

Rebeca Caires (University of Tennessee, USA) Modulation of TRPV4 channels by Omega-3 fatty acids

Aida Marcotti (Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Spain) Modulation of the TRPA1 ion channel by sigma 1: implications in peripheral neuropathy by oxaliplatin

S10 – Physiology of extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular disease

Coordinator: Carlos E. Irarrázabal (Universidad de Los Andes, Chile)

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) consider coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and arterial hypertension. All epidemiological studies by the WHO, AHA / NIH (USA) and MINSAL (Chile) have reported that CVD is the leading cause of death at the local and global level. Worldwide, the WHO reported that in 2012, 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases. The age-adjusted mortality rate goes from 40.4-52.9 to per 100,000 population. Extracellular vesicles are released by cells and contain as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Extracellular vesicles rise earlier than troponin in patients with the acute coronary syndrome. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with a size ranging from 30 to 150 nm in diameter and have been suggested as cardioprotectors.

Speakers

Carlos E. Irarrázabal (Universidad de Los Andes, Chile)Cardiac ischemia induced by stress tests promotes an increase in extracellular vesicles in peripheral blood

Luis Osorio (Universidad de Los Andes, Chile)The nanoparticle tracking analysis technique associated with immunofluorescence allows the quantification of extracellular vesicles with specific charge

Nahuel A García (GECORP, Buenos Aires, Argentina) Circulating exosomes deliver free fatty acids from the bloodstream to cardiac cells: Possible role of CD36

S11 – Physiological approach to the type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment

Coordinator: Jacobo Villalobos (Hospital Regional de Antofagasta, Chile)

A physiological approach to the type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment, is a great example of the integration of the biomedical sciences in regards of the great number of patients all over the world that suffer these diseases and its consequences. Actually, patients can receive a pharmacological treatment elaborated in the base of the physiology of the glucose homeostasis, with biochemical and medical evidence of a better patient’s prognosis. It is our aim to provide scientific information that supports a pharmacological intervention thought since the physiology of hormones, receptors and membranes transporters in different organs that participate in the metabolic control.

Speakers

Daniel Marante (Hospital Regional de Antofagasta, Chile)Control mechanisms of insulin secretion and their implications in the physiopathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Jacobo Villalobos (Hospital Regional de Antofagasta, Chile)Control mechanisms and glycaemia regulation

Cristian Tabilo (Hospital Regional de Antofagasta, Chile)Physiological bases of the new hypoglycaemic therapies

S12 – Women in neuroinflammation: A multidisciplinary glimpse from the molecules to the translational medicine

Coordinator: Trinidad A Mariqueo (Universidad de Talca, Chile)

Looking for people’s health benefits require a Public Health good design, but also a
compromise of the scientist community to look for new tools and approaches in the
scientific research. Different disciplines should be connected to develop more approaches in aim to expedite the discovery of new diagnostic tools and treatments. Multi-disciplinary, highly collaborative research groups with different expertise could accomplish that step earlier. Neurophysiology and inflammatory systems share common molecular cues to develop cooperative networks that have been recently involved in central neural system diseases. In this symposium, we propose a new point of view, supported by a strong experimental background in basic science but with an important component on translational science. From the small ionic channel to the individual, several points of view are cooperating to offer ‘science with applications’ in the neuro-immune field.

Speakers

Fernanda Neutzling-Kaufmann (Université Laval, Canada)Stress, depression and resilience: Neuroimmune mechanisms and sex differences

Carolina A. Oliva (Universidad Andrés Bello, Chile)Neurodegenerative diseases: From synaptic plasticity to cognitive deficiencies

Trinidad A Mariqueo (Universidad de Talca, Chile)The neuro-immune modulation of inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission at the central nervous system plays a critical role in the perception of different levels of pain

S13 – Stem cells in regenerative medicine: targeted diseases

Coordinator: Claudio Aguayo T (Universidad de Concepción, Chile)

In recent years a new area of medicine called regenerative medicine has emerged, based mainly on new knowledge about stem cells and their ability to become cells of different tissues. Stem cells are classified as embryonic and somatic or adult. For several years, the hematopoietic stem cell was considered to be the only bone marrow cell with generative capacity. However, several studies have shown that the composition of the bone marrow is complex, with a heterogeneous group of adult stem cells has been identified, among which are: hematopoietic cells, mesenchymal cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells. Several studies have suggested that the potentiality of some types of adult stem cells is greater than expected since they have demonstrated, under certain conditions, the ability to differentiate into cells of different lineages, similar to the potentiality of embryonic cells. This has created new perspectives for the treatment of different diseases, such as type I diabetes mellitus, Parkinson’s disease, and myocardial infarction. In this symposium, the basic and clinical concepts of the use of stem cells in the treatment of human diseases will be exposed.

Speakers

Víctor Carriel Araya (Universidad de Granada, Spain) Biomaterials as stem cells delivery system in peripheral nerve tissue engineering

Paloma Ordóñez-Morán (University of Nottingham Biodiscovery Institute, UK) Intestinal stem cell niche in both in vivo and novel in vitro models

Patricia A. Luz Crawford (Universidad de Los Andes, Chile) Perspectives of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in medicine

S14 – The social environment and the physiological state: what changes depending on who is around? Experiences in ruminants

Coordinators: Florencia Beracochea, Julia Giriboni (Universidad de la República, Uruguay)

Animal behaviour influences a wide variety of systems, from neurological to endocrine. In ruminants, social behaviour is inherent to the species, so it is impossible not to consider it when asking new questions and designing experiments. Thus, understanding the physiological bases of behaviour is essential for any researcher in animal science. This symposium proposes to focus on how the social environment determines many of the physiological responses of animals, in particular on reproduction.

Speakers

Rodolfo Ungerfeld (Universidad de la República, Uruguay) Social environment, endocrine changes and reproductive status

Luis Zarazaga (Universidad de Huelva, Spain) Physiological bases of the male effect, how does the presence of the male trigger ovulation and more in females?

Antonio Landaeta-Hernández (Universidad de Zulia, Venezuela) Biostimulation and the restart of reproductive activity in cattle

S15 – Lung cancer: pathophysiological aspects and advances in its treatment. The path from the molecular to the clinical

Coordinators: Ivonne Olmedo, Germán Ebensperger (REECPAL, Universidad de Chile, Chile)

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second-leading cause of death among women worldwide. Lung cancer is also cancer with the highest lethality in Latin America and the second-highest lethality in Chile. Factors such as high rates of smoking and poverty as well as a scarcity of knowledge regarding underlying disease mechanisms threaten our ability to control this cancer. Eradicating lung cancer, therefore, represents a series of challenges ranging from basic science to clinical concerns. In our symposium, we will address three topics related to cancer research. Dr López will discuss the role of polyamines in the metabolism of lung cancer tumour cells and the implications of these molecules for the development of cancer. Several cellular processes are involved in the aetiology of this disease, such as epigenetic regulation, cellular proliferation and apoptosis, which ultimately disturb cellular homeostasis. Dr Jara will explain the role of stem cells in lung cancer pathophysiology and the ways in which these cells acquire resistance to drug treatments. Drug resistance greatly hinders the development of therapeutic strategies to combat the primary tumour and subsequent metastases. Finally, Dr Fernández will update us on the progress of clinical research in various therapeutic fields. The panel of researchers will collectively report on our current knowledge regarding the response of tumour cells to the drugs used to fight lung cancer and how physiological or pathophysiological processes are modulated by these experimental approaches.

Speakers

Rodrigo López (Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile) Polyamines and their role in the metabolism of non-small-cell lung cancer

José Jara Sandoval (Universidad de Chile, Chile) Lung tumor stem cells and drug resistance mechanisms

Gonzalo Fernández (Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile & Instituto Nacional del Tórax, Chile) Progress in the treatment of lung cancer: Molecular biology and clinical advances

Enlace permanente a este artículo: https://www.cienciasfisiologicas.cl/proposals-for-symposia/